AI and Digital Accessibility

Microsoft held an evening at the London on March 28th where the invitation to the event encouraged us to believe that:

“With the advancement in conversational intelligence, Deep learning, and Reinforcement learning, Artificial Intelligence has the potential to revolutionize the way we live and interact with our surroundings. AI for accessibility is taking leap[s] into the realm of opportunities and changing people[s’] lives for better.”

London – Microsoft Data & AILive stream on YouTube

It proved to be an interesting evening where Microsoft demonstrated how their Office products embed AI and accessibility within the process of developing documents. They offer automatic image labelling, accessibility checks, captioning and translations alongside supporting apps useful in many settings. Examples include Seeing AI (a smart phone app) providing information about the world around us via the camera with speech output and We Walk a smart cane that helps those who have visual impairments avoid obstacles. Virtual and augmented reality, haptics and working to support and support for those with hearing impairments were on show.

electronic wheelchair user

Companies showcased their applications throughout the evening and there was a fascinating presentation about wheelchair control via eye tracking from Professor Aldo Faisal (Imperial College)

Interestingly innovative AI ideas for those with cognitive impairments such as learning disabilities were not high on the agenda and yet many of the innovations in this area can also help those with dementia and stroke when communication can be affected.

Professor Clayton Lewis has written a White Paper for the Coleman Institute for Cognitive Disabilities on “Implications of Developments in Machine Learning for People with Cognitive Disabilities” He discusses a roadmap, with many of the strategies we have been collecting. Examples include making text easier to understand, the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) for text simplification and clarification, visual assistants using image recognition to detect issues occurring in the home with chatbots to assist with problems and ideas around brain connected systems. As with many authors, Professor Lewis reflects on issues around ethics, security and privacy, the lack of disability specific data and algorithms and includes these thoughts under policy projects. But he also stresses that:

…we may expect continued progress in deep learning, as well, perhaps, as significant new ideas. Besides awaiting (and encouraging) these developments, our community should consider how more limited capabilities may be useful in the applications important to us.

At the end of April 2019 there was a short holiday period and as a wonderfully instructive and interesting read that explains all things AI to the non-mathematician, Associate Professor Hannah Fry’s ‘Hello World: Being Human in the Age of Algorithms‘ proved to be a good option! Associate Professor Fry has been interviewed about the book by Demetri Kofinas (YouTube) and this video introduces some of the ideas she explains.

The Three Dimensions of Inclusive Design

Jutta Treviranus has developed a ” a guiding framework for inclusive design, suitable for a digitally transformed and increasingly connected context. ”

The three dimensions of the framework are:

1. Recognize, respect, and design for human uniqueness and variability.

2. Use inclusive, open & transparent processes, and co-design with people who have a diversity of perspectives, including people that can’t use or have difficulty using the current designs.

3. Realize that you are designing in a complex adaptive system.

The three blogs about ‘The Three Dimensions of Inclusive Design’  were published in March, April and May 2018 and encourage us to think very seriously about how we can make everything we do in our digital world more accessible and inclusive. In her final blog Jutta says:

Including difference is how we evolve as a human society. Inclusive design is about far more than addressing disability. But disability has been called our last frontier. It is the human difference that our social structures have not yet integrated. This is paradoxical because disability is a potential state we can all find ourselves in. If we reject and exclude individuals who experience disabilities, we reject and exclude our future selves and our loved ones.

Jutta Treviranus
Director, Inclusive Design Research Centre, OCAD University

Dr John Gilligan from the Technical University of Dublin  sent me a link to on of Jutta’s tweets about AI and Inclusion. We are just beginning to explore in more depth where the gaps are when thinking about AI and inclusion and how this impacts in both positive and negative ways on at least 20% of the world’s population.